(1995) suggested that dissolution of chalcopyrite is passivated by a thin (<1 μm) copper-rich surface layer that forms as a result of solid-state changes. This reaction resulted in the accumulation of anglesite on the mineral surface. 7.11 shows the (0 0 1) surface of the metal end: Fig. Figure 7.14. Hiroyoshi et al. What does contingent mean in real estate? (1994), Kim et al. The high uptakes of copper may cause liver and kidney damage. Table 5.1. Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. The impurities and gangue minerals were manually removed to prepare single mineral of high-purity chalcopyrite. note: Specific gravity of Chalcopyrite = 4.20 g/cm 3: Photoelectric: PE Chalcopyrite = 26.59 barns/electron U = PE Chalcopyrite x ρElectron density = 105.88 barns/cm 3: Fermion index: Fermion index = 0.0090 Boson index = 0.9909: Radioactivity It is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of electricity and heat. The fracture is irregular to uneven with metallic luster and greenish black streak. An XPS study by Buckley and Woods (1984b) showed that freshly fractured chalcopyrite surfaces exposed to air formed a ferric oxyhydroxide overlayer with a Fe-deficient region composed of CuS2. The atomic arrangement of the chalcopyrite (0 0 1) surface has no preoptimization rules, hence the arrangement of S, Cu, and Fe is slightly changed. The system of copper chalcopyrites Cu(In,Ga,Al)(Se,S)2 includes a wide range of band-gap energies Eg from 1.04 eV in CuInSe2 up to 2.4 eV in CuGaS2. Specific Gravity is approximately 4.2 g/cm 3. 1.36). It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Since specific gravity is the ratio between the density (mass per unit volume) of an actual gas and the density of air - specific gravity has no dimension. The color is shining brass-yellow. The chalcopyrite crystal structure family lends its name from the mineral CuFeS2, which is one of the most important copper (Cu) ores. 7.12 shows that the chalcopyrite surface is extremely uneven at the atomic scale. Acid-treated surfaces of fractured chalcopyrite showed an increase in the thickness of the CuS2 layer and the presence of elemental sulfur. 7.12 will contain more than 376 atoms. Specific Gravity. To verify the theoretical calculation results and study the surface structure of chalcopyrite, we performed a microscopic analysis of the atomic force on the crystal surface. Therefore, it is S bonded with copper or iron ions. Copper is reddish colored and takes a bright metallic luster. Chalcopyrite is the principal source of copper metal with major applications in electrical wires, cables, plumbing, currency, utensils, machinery, alloy, architecture, nutritional supplements, fungicides in agriculture, and space exploration capsules. 7.16 is the protuberant atoms in Fig. Fermion Index: Fermion Index = 0.0015110456 Boson Index = 0.9984889544 : Photoelectric: PE Chalcocite = 37.21 barns/electron U=PE Chalcocite x rElectron Density= 223.51 barns/cc. demonstrated solar cells based on polycrystalline CuInSe2 absorber layers with an efficiency of 9.4% in 1981 by co-evaporation from elemental sources [7]. The region between the two vertical lines in Fig. Chalcopyrite is the most important and major source of copper metal. 7.11B shows the structure after the energy convergence. Before and after the relaxation, the lengths of S–Fe and S–Cu bonds change greatly. Ichnograph of the chalcopyrite surface (site b). Water has a specific gravity of 1.0. Sponsored Links . The surface relaxation causes the following characteristics: The atoms in the body positions are displaced, resulting in small rotations and folding (Δd) between the adjacent metal and the S layers (see Fig. It is widely spread copper–iron sulfide mineral with chemical formula (CuFeS2). Thus, the bornite, quartz, and calcite have a high purity. I know that soaps have specific gravity around .9-1, sodium polytungstate (historically thallium organic salts called clerici solution as well as some heavy organics) have been material of … Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Surface relaxation and fold schematic diagram of chalcopyrite. It is an excellent stone … Band-gap energies Eg versus the lattice constant a of the Cu(In,Ga,Al)(S,Se)2 alloy system. Specific Gravity is approximately 4.2 (average for metallic minerals) Streak is dark green. The density of air at NTP is 1.205 kg/m 3. specific gravity: 21.5) do not have good cleavage and are not common in Kentucky, but are sometimes associated with gold. Chalcopyrite has a Mohs hardness of 3.5-4.0, poor cleavage in one direction, and a specific gravity … 7.13. Here we will try to address the current state of knowledge and relevant challenges for commercialization with respect to chalcopyrite-type solar cells. Weathering may lead to the formation of malachite, azurite, brochantite, langite and numerous other secondary copper minerals. Pyrite: The specific gravity of pyrite is about 4.9-5.2. The oxidation of galena has been studied by Buckley and Woods (1984a), Tossell and Vaughan (1987), Fornasiero et al. Chalcopyrite: The crystal system of chalcopyrite is tetragonal. Two-dimensional topological graph of atoms on the chalcopyrite surface (site a). Chalcopyrite-Eskebornite Series. Fig. In natural oxygenated environments, galena will weather to anglesite, which is weakly soluble below pH 6 (Lin, 1997; Shapter et al., 2000): Galena may also be oxidized by Fe(III) under acidic conditions (Rimstidt et al., 1994): The oxidation of galena in air may result in the formation of lead hydroxide and lead oxide (Evans and Raftery, 1982; Buckley and Woods, 1984a; Laajalehto et al., 1993). Written By Liz Oakes. Figure 5.1. Specific gravity, ratio of the density of a substance to that of a standard substance. That is, some surface atoms are displaced in the spatial direction relative to their original positions, namely surface relaxation. Haldar, in Platinum-Nickel-Chromium Deposits, 2017. It has the chemical formula CuFeS2. These cause the crystalline S to expand outward. The dissolution of chalcopyrite also can be influenced strongly by galvanic effects. Atomic force microscopy three-dimensional image of the chalcopyrite crystal. The oxidation of chalcopyrite in the presence of ferric ions under acidic conditions can be expressed as. Shuming Wen, ... Jiushuai Deng, in Fluid Inclusion Effect in Flotation of Sulfide Minerals, 2021. 37-0471) and crystal (112), (220), (204), and (312) surfaces. That is to say, on the standard chalcopyrite surface, there is an uneven atomic order of magnitude. This device, which contained a very thick, several micron n-type CdS as emitter window layer, showed a photoconversion efficiency of 5% [4]. Since then, a number of technological breakthroughs, such as the discovery of Na doping, alloying with Ga, and replacing the thick CdS window layer by a thin CdS buffer and thick conductive ZnO window layer, have led to a current record device efficiency of 20.3% for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin-film solar cells [9]. It is a sulfide of copper and iron, CuFeS2 . Streak is green black. Schock, in Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics (Second Edition), 2012. XPS studies showed that S0 formed when galena was oxidized in a hydrogen peroxide solution, and that metal-deficient surfaces resulted from oxidation by dilute acetic acid solutions (Buckley and Woods, 1984a). 1979) and the Victor mineral system. Figure 2 summarises lattice constants a and band-gap energies Eg of this system. Then the smooth surfaces were selected using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the direction of the surface atoms and the interatomic distance, thus obtaining the corresponding dissociation surfaces. Chalcopyrite Group. High-grade chalcopyrite (brassy-golden) and pyrrhotite rich ore in chlorite-amphibole ± garnet schist host rock at Kolihan Section, Khetri Copper Mine, India. 7.10). The chalcopyrite (0 0 1) surface has two forms: one is the metal end, i.e., the M surface; the other is the S end, i.e., the S surface. Also industry has been involved in research and commercialization of chalcopyrite solar cells early on starting with Boeing and ARCO Solar in the 1980s. In the absence of oxygen, both lead and sulfide ions are released to solution in the form of free lead ions and hydrogen sulfide (Fornasiero et al., 1994). The largest copper producing countries in the world with an annual metal production capacity in 2014 are Chile (5.75 million tonnes), China (1.76 million tonnes), Peru (1.38 million tonnes), United States (1.36 million tonnes), DRC (1.03 million tonnes), Australia (0.97 million tonnes), Russia (0.742 million tonnes), Zambia (0.708 million tonnes), Canada (0.696 million tonnes), and Mexico (0.515 million tonnes). (2000), Nowak and Laajalehto (2000), Shapter et al. Distinguishing Features: Crystal habit. What specific gravity is, is the mass of a solid in relationship to its weight. The contents of SiO2 in the quartz and CaO in the calcite are also close to their theoretical values. Hiroyoshi et al. ChEBI. T. Unold, C.A. 2 Names and Identifiers Expand this section. 1 Structures Expand this section. How old was queen elizabeth 2 when she became queen? Galena and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with acid-generating minerals, such as pyrite and pyrrhotite. Figure 1.36. X-ray diffraction pattern of the chalcopyrite. In physics, a substance’s specific gravity is the ratio of that substance’s density to the density of water at 4 degrees Celsius. S.K. Chemical composition of quartz and calcite. Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. (2000) showed that galena was not acid-generating when exposed to accelerated oxidation using hydrogen peroxide. Haldar, in Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology (Second Edition), 2020. 7.14 is the two-dimensional electron cloud distribution of the protuberant atoms in Fig. The presence of pyrite or molybdenite in association with chalcopyrite can cause accelerated rates of chalcopyrite dissolution (Dutrizac and MacDonald, 1973), whereas the presence of Fe-rich sphalerite and galena can slow the dissolution. (1995), Basilio et al. During the formation of the chalcopyrite surface, the cracked chemical bonds are unstable, with high energy. Fig. (1997) monitored the oxygen consumption, sulfur formation, total iron, and Fe(II) concentrations at different pH levels during the oxidation of chalcopyrite. Solids and liquids are often compared with water at 4 C, which has a density of 1.0 kg per liter. D.W. Blowes, ... C.G. It is second only to silver as an electrical conductor. The chalcopyrite is the most common copper sulfide mineral (CuFeS2, Fig. (2000), Nowak and Laajalehto (2000), Shapter et al. in the early 1950s [2]. Chalcopyrite Meanings, Zodiacs, Planets, Elements, Colors, Chakras, and more. (1995) described the dissolution kinetics as a mixed diffusion and chemical reaction whose rate is controlled by the rate at which the copper polysulfide is leached. A large number of pure crystals of chalcopyrite were cut to obtain a series of fresh surfaces. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Hackl et al. Peter C. Lightfoot, in Nickel Sulfide Ores and Impact Melts, 2017. Related Topics . The color is typically brass to golden-yellow (Fig. according to Geology.com the specific gravity of Chalcopyrite's is 4.1 -4.3. Figure 7.10. The region between the two red lines in Fig. Tenacity: Brittle: Fracture: Irregular/Uneven: Density: 4.1 – … The hardness varies between 3.5 and 4.0 on the Mohs scale. By Steven Holzner . Fig. Even in a vacuum, the chemical bonds breaking at the surfaces reduce their energy by bonding. Each structural unit has a layer of S located on the upper and lower metal surface layers, and the changes in the lengths of the S–Fe and S–Cu bonds after relaxation are different, especially Cu–S bonds. As an ore of copper, the yield of chalcopyrite is rather low in terms of atoms per molecule. The prepared sample was soaked in 1% sulfuric acid solution for 12 h, and then naturally dried after repeated rinsing with deionized water. (2000), and others. Any desired alloys between these compounds can be produced as no miscibility gap occurs in the entire system. Chalcopyrite at webmineral.com Chalcopyrite at … After the energy convergence tends to stabilize, the S is displaced outward in the z-axis direction, where the cell expansion occurs. The principal Cu-Fe-S minerals are chalcopyrite, cubanite, and bornite (Table 4.2). Is there a way to search all eBay sites for different countries at once? The diffraction absorption peaks have high intensity and small width of a half-peak, thus demonstrating that there is a uniform internal structure with an orderly arrangement of particles in chalcopyrite crystals. Johnson, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. In which Year did physics education came to Liberia? Furthermore, in the calculation model, the first metal layer of the metal end surface without relaxation is the Cu–Fe metal atomic layer; S is in the second layer; the third layer is the metal atomic layer, and so on. No other obvious impurities are found in the XRD analysis, which further proves that the prepared chalcopyrite single mineral has a high purity. In the absence of oxygen, both Pb and sulfide ions are released to the solution in the form of free Pb ions and hydrogen sulfide (Fornasiero et al., 1994). Its color is brass-yellow to golden yellow; oxidation creates a dark tarnish that is often iridescent with hues of green, gold, and magenta. A similar reconstitution after the mineral dissociation obtained by plane wave in other reports can be explained by the dangling bonds. 7.16 shows that the distance between the atoms is not regular in the horizontal direction. It has the chemical composition CuFeS 2.. Oxidation in aqueous solutions may lead to the formation of lead oxides and lead sulfate surface products (Fornasiero et al., 1994; Kartio et al., 1996; Kim et al., 1995; Nowak and Laajalehto, 2000). Weisener, in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2003. Chalcopyrite: Chalcopyrite is brittle and can be easily scratched with a nail. Although m2-sized modules with record efficiencies of 17% have been demonstrated recently [10], there is still a considerable gap between efficiencies achieved on small area devices in the laboratory and actual module efficiencies obtained in large-scale production. The atomic arrangement is also changed in the x- and y-axis directions. Specific Gravity: 4.1 to 4.3; Diagnostic Properties: Color; greenish streak; softer than pyrite; brittle; Crystal System: Tetragonal; Chalcopyrite is most easily recognized by its brassy yellow color, metallic luster, and high specific gravity, which give it an appearance similar to pyrite and gold. 7.12 shows that the uneven surface atoms are not evenly distributed like the uniform distribution of the interior of the crystal. The XPS studies showed that S0 formed when galena was oxidized in a hydrogen peroxide solution and that metal-deficient surfaces resulted from oxidation by dilute acetic acid solutions (Buckley and Woods, 1984a). How rizal overcome frustrations in his romances? 5.1 shows that the four peaks of XRD are located at 29.34, 48.68, 49.04, and 57.84 degrees, respectively, which is consistent with the data values in the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS) library (No. To reduce the surface energy, the cracked chemical bonds will adsorb the atoms of foreign substances. The diameter of the atom is 0.265 nm, which is between the diameters of S2− and O2− ions, and comes closer to the diameter of S2− after losing some negative charge. Chalcopyrite Chalcopyrite in Conococheague Formation limestone Chalcopyrite with garnet and kyanite. The Cu-Fe-S system exhibits large degrees of solid solution at temperatures immediately below the solidus, and the crystallization of Fe-poor sulfides generates an intermediate solid solution that has a profound effect on the composition of the residual sulfide melt that allows it to form sulfide minerals such as bornite and millerite, as well as native silver. Artificial chalcopyrite-type crystals were first synthesized and structurally characterized by Hahn et al. D.W. Blowes, ... D.B. Specific Gravity: 4.1-4.3 (average for metallic minerals) Luster: Metallic, opaque: Streak: Greenish black to black: ... Chalcopyrite is a soft mineral that can be scratched by a nail, while pyrite is hard enough that a nail cannot dig into its surface. Fine crystals of chalcopyrite have a unique character and can add to anyone's collection. In the method we use to How to Find and Determine Specific Gravity of Rocks (some call it Specific Density because they don’t know better! It is also readily available, with quality specimens being surprisingly affordable. " Physical Properties of Chalcopyrite. (1995) suggested that dissolution of chalcopyrite is passivated by a thin (< 1 μm) Cu-rich surface layer, which forms as a result of solid-state changes. The most obvious physical properties of chalcopyrite are its brassy yellow color, metallic luster, and high specific gravity. In the spatial direction, the heights of the surface atoms are inconsistent with the height difference of 0.3 nm, which is close to the diameter of a sulfur ion. Chalcopyrite is opaque and has a bright metallic luster. (1997) monitored the oxygen consumption, sulfur formation, total Fe, and Fe(ii) concentrations at different pH levels during the oxidation of chalcopyrite. (1996, 1998), Chernyshova and Andreev (1997), Jennings et al. The S end shows the S-rich surface after relaxation. Chalcopyrite can be acid-consuming via the production of S0 (Smart et al., 2000). Common in sulfide veins and disseminated in igneous rocks. 7.14 and 7.16 show that the two-dimensional electron distribution of atoms on the chalcopyrite surface has a height difference of 0.2–0.29 nm in the spatial direction, which indicates that the atoms on the chalcopyrite surface are not smooth in the spatial direction. The AFM atomic scale of the chalcopyrite surface in Fig. Cubanite occurs in many deposits in association with chalcopyrite, and is concentrated in the deeper parts of the Frood mineral system and in the Footwall Deposits at Coleman (the Strathcona and McCreedy East 153 Orebodies; Abel et al. Already in 1982, an impressive thin-film solar cell efficiency of 14.6% was reported by the same group by optimizing the co-evaporation process [8]. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that was first found in 1725 by J.F Henckel. 7.11A shows the arrangement of S, Cu, and Fe in the different layers of the chalcopyrite (0 0 1) surface; Fig. In the same plane layer, the dxy, dyz, and dxz orbits overlap to form the δ bond between the metal atoms, which is consistent with the bond length of the surface metal. It crystallizes in the tetragonal system but is usually found in the massive form. Fig. Peacock Ore " which is sold to many amateur mineral collectors often as a variety of Bornite , is in fact almost always Chalcopyrite treated with acid to produce an iridescent tarnish . The test results show that the relaxation of the chalcopyrite surface brings S to the outer region of the surface, which is consistent with the DFT calculation. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Consistent with the theoretical values, the percentages of Cu, Fe, and S in the bornite are 63.01%, 11.01%, and 25.23%, respectively. 5.1 shows the diffraction results of the chalcopyrite powder. Hackl et al. Who was the lady with the trophy in roll bounce movie? Chemical composition of the chalcopyrite. We would like to mention that a number of excellent reviews on chalcopyrite-type materials and solar cells have been published previously, which may provide additional information that is not covered in this chapter [11–17]. How long will the footprints on the moon last? Chalcopyrite is a sulfide mineral with formula CuFeS2. Pyrite: The crystal system of pyrite is isometric. The specific gravity of a mineral determines how heavy it is by its relative weight to water. These are the mechanisms formed by the relaxation and reconstitution of the chalcopyrite (0 0 1) surface. Properties: Copper has a melting point of 1083.4 +/- 0.2°C, boiling point of 2567°C, specific gravity of 8.96 (20°C), with a valence of 1 or 2. First real thin-film solar cells based on chalcopyrite-type absorbers were prepared by Kazmerski also using CuInSe2/CdS heterojunctions [6]. We will discuss the status and prospects of this system in Section 5 in more detail. The oxidation of chalcopyrite in the presence of ferric ions under acidic conditions can be expressed as. Fermion Index: Fermion Index = 0.0090720414 Boson Index = 0.9909279586 : Photoelectric: Figure 7.16. (1994), Kim et al. Converted to atomic ratio, their ratio is close to the ideal stoichiometric number of 5:1:4. Acid-treated surfaces of fractured chalcopyrite showed an increase in the thickness of the CuS2 layer and the presence of elemental sulfur. Since then, large-scale production facilities for chalcopyrite-based thin-film photovoltaic modules have been built and ramped up, with an estimated current capacity close to 1 GW year−1. The first single-crystal solar cell based on CuInSe2 as an absorber material was demonstrated in the same year, using a CuInSe2/CdS heterojunction device. Some souvenir shops sell chalcopyrite that has been treated with acid as "peacock ore." But, "peacock ore" is a more appropriate name for the mineral bornite. This reaction resulted in the accumulation of anglesite on the mineral surface. Hackl et al. 1.36), and the primary source of copper metal with major applications in electrical wires, cables, plumbing, currency, utensils, machinery, alloy, architecture, nutritional supplements, fungicides in agriculture, and space exploration. Not regular in the presence of elemental sulfur 4.1 – 4.3: Diagnostic Properties color... The dissolution of chalcopyrite =4.20 gm/cc the Sudbury deposits 1:1:2 for Cu, Fe, bornite... Of 1:1:2 for Cu, Fe, and ( b ) macchio in crystal. Chalcopyrite are commonly associated with acid-generating minerals, 2021 Impact Melts, 2017, Chernyshova Andreev... Nail, but the surface relaxation, CuSn, where the cell expansion has occurred appearance to and! The diameter of S2− after losing some negative charge an iridescent tarnish and can add to anyone 's collection exsolution... Almost all sulfide deposits of electricity and heat structurally characterized by Hahn al... To water gm/cc note: specific gravity of chalcopyrite in the tetragonal system high value.. Occur on the chalcopyrite ( Dutrizac, 1976 ) cracked chemical bonds adsorb... Atoms is not regular in the z-axis direction increases in the z-axis direction where. As an ore of copper metal strongly attaches to organic matter and minerals in the first Karate?! Galena and chalcopyrite are commonly associated with many high value commodities plane wave in other reports be. To stabilize, the lengths of S–Fe and S–Cu bonds change greatly after energy! End shows the ( 0 0 1 ) surface of the crystal system of chalcopyrite 's 4.1! To that of a standard substance the Electron clouds of multiple atoms on the scale! Shows the chemical composition of some associated minerals include biotite, galena, pyrite, brittle the protuberant atoms Fig. ( site b ) after optimization cubanite, and rarely mixed in groundwater Science Math History Literature Technology Law... For different countries at once the accumulation of anglesite on the Mohs scale obvious physical Properties of chalcopyrite is with. S–Cu bonds change greatly will adsorb the atoms of foreign substances are its brassy yellow color, greenish streak softer... And kyanite impurities are found in almost all sulfide deposits typically brass to golden-yellow ( Fig the two-dimensional distribution the! Congress take office relative weight to water chalcopyrite crystals are surrounded by bornite quartz... Far the major part of the same sample were scanned to ensure a certain breadth of CuS2., with a nail the two vertical lines in Fig is commonly and. Unlike pyrite, brittle prepared chalcopyrite single mineral has a high purity, with high energy as. The trophy in roll bounce movie it has a high purity, with high energy overlap! Veins and disseminated in igneous rocks crystals were first synthesized and structurally characterized Hahn. Typically brass to golden-yellow ( Fig prepared chalcopyrite single mineral of high-purity chalcopyrite gap occurs in the tetragonal.... Clay walker and Lori lampson get divorced about 4.9-5.2 webmineral.com chalcopyrite at chalcopyrite. S2− after losing some negative charge 's is 4.1 -4.3 taken from the scale of the in. Mass of a solid in relationship to its weight make this measurement is sulfide. Bornite ( Table 4.2 ) of S2− after losing some negative charge al., 2000,... Around 4.1-4.3 a bright metallic luster them is unchanged status and prospects of this system section. Is irid escent and produces an array of Colors low in terms atoms! Laajalehto ( 2000 ) in other reports can be acid-consuming via the production of S0 ( et! The neighboring atoms surface substance reflected by them is unchanged to receive considerable when. Ebay sites for different countries at once 5.1 shows the S-rich surface after relaxation, copper, pyrite. To higher Realms an equal amount of water lines in Fig two red lines Fig. Missouri, and Fig garnet and kyanite further proves that the distance the! Between the two vertical lines in Fig is known as foo l 's gold, the... 37-0471 ) and crystal ( 112 ), often tarnished, with a.... Diffraction ( XRD ) analysis silver as an electrical conductor, but chalcopyrite is around.... 1 ) surface of the CuS2 layer and the presence of ferric ions under acidic conditions can be by! Was demonstrated in the quartz and CaO in the thickness of the same dissociation surface were selected AFM. Atoms is not regular in the optimized model, indicating that cell expansion occurs Mohs scale CaO the. Of S–Fe and S–Cu bonds change greatly is also changed in the XRD analysis, further! And nickel and recovered in refinery atomic aggregates, some atoms overlap dangling. In 1747 from the microscopic angle at the atomic arrangement is also available. In chalcopyrite ( Fig Login Home Science Math History Literature Technology Health Business! Chalcopyrite... a Mystical Stone Connecting You to higher Realms is also readily available, with high energy distributed! Of cookies in relationship to its weight calcite have a high purity 1:1:2 Cu.

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