The neurotic personality of our time. The fundamental premise of social interdependence theory is that the way in which goals are structured determines how individuals interact, and those interaction patterns create outcomes. Materials on cooperative learning have been translated into dozens of languages. c.  Predict what is going to be presented next; hypothesize. Keep in touch with the Cooperative Learning Institute, Banner images provided by Classic Sailing or GollyGforce, for demo purposes only. Deutsch conceptualized three types of social interdependence–positive, negative, and none. The teacher decides which goal structure to implement within each lesson. New York: Norton. For example, "Students will present their opinion of a candidate, supported with facts. b. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1999). Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes. Cooperative learning has received a lot of attention and praise—especially since the 1990s when Johnson and Johnson outlined the five basic elements that allowed successful small-group learning: At the same time, the following characteristics need to be present: Side-note: This article uses the terms "cooperative" and "collaborative" interchangeably. Social interdependence:  The interrelationships among theory, research, and practice. The research on social interdependence, furthermore, has an external validity and a generalizability rarely found in the social sciences. Give a reaction to the theory, concepts, or information presented. By explaining the social skills emphasized in the lesson, teachers operationalize (a) the social skill objectives of the lesson and (b) the interaction patterns (such as oral rehearsal and jointly building conceptual frameworks) teachers wish to create. When utilizing these three types of cooperative learning, any learning situations in any subject area with any age students and with any curriculum can be structured cooperatively. The relationships between the type of social interdependence and the interaction pattern it elicits is assumed to be bidirectional. ConditionsAchievementInterpersonal AttractionSocial SupportSelf-Esteem, Note:  Coop = Cooperation, Comp = Competition, Ind = Individualistic, Reprinted By Permission From:  Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. (1989). The parameters often vary, as students can work collaboratively on a variety of problems, ranging from simple math problems to large assignments such as proposing environmental solutions on a national level. In your classroom you should really only have groups of 4 students. Each member must be accountable for contributing his or her share of the work (which ensures that no one “hitch-hikes” on the work of others). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Take existing lessons, curricula, and courses and structure them cooperatively. Many cooperative learning implementers have recommended and anecdotally supported the use of computer software (Broome and Chen, 1992; Hythecker et al., 1985; Rocklin et al., 1985), and expert instructors (McDonnell, 1990) to guide and monitor adult cooperative learning episodes. Teachers have to teach teamwork skills just as purposefully and precisely as teachers do academic skills. Deutsch’s basic premise was that the type of interdependence structured in a situation determines how individuals interact with each other which, in turn, largely determines outcomes. If learners are provided access to correct … The core element of cooperative learning is to showcase the positive effects of interdependence while underlining the importance of personal responsibility. Students can compete with groupmates, students can work individualistically while ignoring groupmates, or students can work cooperatively with groupmates. ), a short documentary video that shows important features of good collaboration, three or more challenging problems that students won’t be able to solve alone, and a few short videos depicting students like yours collaborating together. Theorizing on social interdependence began in the early 1900s, when one of the founders of the Gestalt School of Psychology, Kurt Koffka, proposed that groups were dynamic wholes in which the interdependence among members could vary. In M. Jones (Ed. Length-wise, the workshop is designed to fit into a span of one week or five classes. It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group. Johnson D. W., & Johnson, R.  (1989). 2. In the late 1800’s Triplett in the United States, Turner in England, and Mayer in Germany conducted a series of studies on the factors associated with competitive performance. Establish groups using a variety of criteria, such as social skills, academic skills, student interests, and instructional objectives. By assigning students roles, role interdependence is established. Interactivity and negotiation are important in group learning. Assessing students’ learning and helping students process how well their groups functioned. The high-quality studies tend to have even more powerful effects. It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group. Thirty five students enrolled in Masters programme (MA ELTL) were the subjects of the study. in sociology and has taught school for more than a decade in public and private settings. Each member that is in the group is responsible for learning the information given, and also for helping their fellow group members learn the information as well. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. The diversity of these studies gives social interdependence theory wide generalizability and considerable external validity. Also, Kolawole posited that cooperative learning strategy was more effective than competitive learning strategy in teaching of Mathematics at secondary school level. Promotive, oppositional, and no interaction have differential effects on the outcomes of the situation (see Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). To be cooperative, to reach the full potential of the group, five essential elements need to be carefully structured into the situation:  positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of social skills, and group processing (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Figure 1 shows the relationships among the outcomes. The group problem-solving tasks were conceptual questions from physics, where the students had to discuss and provide explanations of some phenomena. Have you ever participated in a group project or on a committee to achieve some task? Permanent cooperative base groups provide the arena in which caring and committed relationships can be created that provide the social support needed to improve attendance, personalize the educational experience, increase achievement, and improve the quality of school life. Rejected children tend to be deficient in a number of social-cognitive skills, including peer group entry, perception of peer group norms, response to provocation, and interpretation of prosocial interactions. Cooperative learning is now an accepted and often the preferred instructional procedure at all levels of education. There is a close association between antisocial behavior and rejection by the normal peer group. The second essential element of cooperative learning is individual and group accountability. Silent discussion about the workshop’s two central questions: You can opt-out at any time. A wide variety of research tasks, ways of structuring social interdependence, and measures of the dependent variables have been used. The parameters often vary, as students can work collaboratively on a variety of problems, ranging from simple math problems to large assignments such as proposing environmental solutions on a national level. Near the end of the class session another short lecture may be delivered with the use of informal cooperative learning. The absence of interdependence indicates no connection between people’s attempts to achieve their goals. Cooperative and Collaborative Learning Lopez, Maryan Joy 2. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. In cooperative learning groups students are required to learn academic subject matter (taskwork) and also to learn the interpersonal and small group skills required to function as part of a group (teamwork). 275-319). Johnson, D. W.  (2003). Group processing exists when group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships. Participants in the studies varied from ages three to post-college adults and have come from different economic classes and cultural backgrounds. 3. Making preinstructional decisions. Students’ learning goals may be structured to promote cooperative, competitive, or individualistic efforts. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. The way in which materials are distributed can create resource interdependence. In formal cooperative learning groups the teachers’ role includes (see Figure 4): 1. Individual accountability exists when the performance of each individual student is assessed and the results are given back to the group and the individual in order to ascertain who needs more assistance, support, and encouragement in completing the assignment. Cooperative learning can be used across a wide range of classroom settings ranging from small to large lecture, as well as in online classes. Deutsch, M.  (1949). Teachers (a) formulate both academic and social skills objectives, (b) decide on the size of groups, (c) choose a method for assigning students to groups, (d) decide which roles to assign group members, (e) arrange the room, and (f) arrange the materials students need to complete the assignment. Purpose of the Research. There are hundreds of studies indicating that cooperation, compared to competitive and individualistic efforts, tends to result in greater effort to achieve, more positive relationships, and greater psychological health. Such individual accountabilityensures that the pairs take the tasks seriously and check each other to ensure that both are prepared to answer. The lecture is followed by a formal cooperative learning lesson. Deutsch’s theory has served as a major conceptual structure for this area of inquiry since 1949. 2. Monitoring students’ learning and intervening to provide assistance in (a) completing the task successfully or (b) using the targeted interpersonal and group skills effectively.While conducting the lesson, teachers monitor each learning group and intervene when needed to improve taskwork and teamwork. In the ideal classroom, all students would learn how to work cooperatively with others, compete for fun and enjoyment, and work autonomously on their own. Students learn together so that they can subsequently perform higher as individuals. Teachers (a) bring closure to the lesson, (b) assess and evaluate the quality and quantity of student achievement, (c) ensure students carefully discuss how effectively they worked together (i.e., process the effectiveness of their learning groups), (d) have students make a plan for improvement, and (e) have students celebrate the hard work of group members. A typical class session may begin with a base group meeting, which is followed by a short lecture in which informal cooperative learning is used. Cooperative base groups are long-term, heterogeneous cooperative learning groups with stable membership (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). Finally, cooperative experiences, compared with competitive and individualistic ones, have been found to promote more positive attitudes toward the task and the experience of working on the task (effect-sizes = 0.57 and 0.42 respectively). Teachers must give a clear task and a group goal so students believe they “sink or swim together.”  Positive interdependenceexists when group members perceive that they are linked with each other in a way that one cannot succeed unless everyone succeeds. Typically, cooperative base groups are heterogeneous in membership (especially in terms of achievement motivation and task orientation), meet regularly (for example, daily or biweekly), and last for the duration of the class (a semester or year) or preferably for several years. After each segment, students are asked to turn to the person next to them and work cooperatively in answering a question (specific enough so that students can answer it in about three minutes) that requires students to cognitively process the material just presented. Cooperative learning is a style of education that gets students actively participating in the classroom. A learning goal is a desired future state of demonstrating competence or mastery in the subject area being studied. The goal structure specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional session. Cooperators spent considerably more time on task than did competitors (effect size = 0.76) or students working individualistically (effect size = 1.17). The diversity of the samples studied and the variety of measures of psychological health provide considerable generalizability of the results of the studies. In competitive situations, the opposite psychological processes may be found. Learn more about reasons to use cooperative learning How to Use Cooperative Learning. Each goal structure has its place (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 1999). Cooperative learning exercises can be as simple as a five minute in class exercise or as complex as a project which crosses class periods. In cooperative and individualistic learning, you evaluate student efforts on a criteria-referenced basis while in competitive learning you grade students on a norm-referenced basis. A 2017 research paper by Rudnitsky et al. Moreover, children referred for psychological treatment have fewer friends and less contact with them than nonreferred children, their friendships are significantly less stable over time, and their understanding of the reciprocities and intimacies involved in friendships is less mature. Group celebrations add reward interdependence to the pairs. Diagnose the problems some students may have in working together and intervene to increase the effectiveness of the student learning groups. New York:  Hawthorn. An important aspect of school life is engagement in learning. Educational practices and thought, however, have changed. The fourth issue is to understand the flexibility and many faces of cooperative learning. Students are given a ta… The discussion task is aimed at promoting advance organizing of what the students know about the topic to be presented and establishing expectations about what the lecture will cover. Edina, MN: interaction Book Company. 7 COOPERATIVE LEARNING Written by: Dr. Fazal-ur-Rahman Reviewed by: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Javed Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. The longer a cooperative group exists, the more caring their relationships will tend to be, the greater the social support they will provide for each other, the more committed they will be to each other’s success, and the more influence members will have over each other. Now, if you don’t have a perfect amount, an extra group of 3 or 5 isn’t bad. Closure Focused Discussion:  Teachers give students an ending discussion task lasting four to five minutes. The Cooperative Learning Institute is a 501(c)3 organization dedcatited to furthering the practice and study of cooperation in the classroom. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. Each may cause the other. Horney, K.  (1937). People who are unable to do so often (a) become depressed, anxious, frustrated, and lonely, (b) tend to feel afraid, inadequate, helpless, hopeless, and isolated, and (c) rigidly cling to unproductive and ineffective ways of coping with adversity. Monitoring the learning groups creates individual accountability; whenever a teacher observes a group, members tend to feel accountable to be constructive members. Introductory Focused Discussion:  Teachers assign students to pairs or triads and explain (a) the task of answering the questions in a four to five minute time period and (b) the positive goal interdependence of reaching consensus. The purpose of cooperative learning groups is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her right. The research on social interdependence includes both theoretical and demonstration studies conducted in educational, business, and social service organizations. When international agreements are made and when international efforts to achieve mutual goals (such as environmental protection) occur, these five elements must be carefully implemented and maintained. How students interact with each another is a neglected aspect of instruction. Group members must know how to provide effective leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict-management, and be motivated to use the prerequisite skills. Discussing the processes the group used to function, furthermore, emphasizes the continuous improvement of promotive interaction and the patterns of interaction need to maximize student learning and retention. With our students and colleagues, we have conducted a series of studies relating cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts and attitudes to various indices of psychological health (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Cooperative learning groups are both an academic support system (every student has someone who is committed to helping him or her learn) and a personal support system (every student has someone who is committed to him or her as a person). Cultural resistance to cooperative learning was based on social Darwinism, with its premise that students must be taught to survive in a “dog-eat-dog” world, and the myth of “rugged individualism” underlying the use of individualistic learning. Together they provide an integrated system for instructional organization and design (as well as classroom management). Friends are a developmental advantage (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Cooperative experiences tend to promote greater social support than does competitive (effect-size = 0.62) or individualistic (effect-size = 0.70) efforts. If so, you probably shared some knowledge with others in the group, and you may have learned something from others, as well. 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